Here we are going to describe a process to manually build and flash a Linux distribution for a NextThingCo CHIP Pro. This means you can build e.g. a custom Debian image with specific packages, or even generate an image for a hard drive that is not 4Gb or 512Mb. In summary, we are going to use:
multistrap, to generate a custom Linux
rootfswith our target packages
CHIP-buildrootto get our CHIP Pro board-specific kernel + modules
CHIP-toolsto synthesize a NAND-ready image from the rootfs, kernel & module; then burn it to the CHIP Pro flash chip
This article will assume an Ubuntu or other Debian-based Linux host as the machine on which development is done. Mac and especially Windows users, may god have mercy on your souls.
Gather ye Ingredients
I have a small repository called
CHIP-Pro-custom-linux that will download and install all that you’ll need to get started for a Linux development (“host”) environment such as Ubuntu 16.10.
Once you’ve cloned this repo, you can use the
setup.sh script to install the rest of what we need:
git clone https://github.com/msolters/CHIP-Pro-custom-linux cd CHIP-Pro-custom-linux sh setup.sh # will need your password to finish installation
This will install the packages required for compiling and flashing the CHIP Pro, as well as NextThingCo’s
CHIP-SDK and its constituent dependencies.
setup.sh can execute (without errors), we’re ready to get cooking!
As you can see in the flow chart, the
CHIP-SDK repository contains most of the software and information we need for flashing the NTC SoCs.
CHIP-SDKREADME’s claim about needing VirtualBox, Vagrant, or any of that noise. A native Linux host is perfectly sufficient for what we are going to do.
setup.sh is to execute the
setup_ubuntu1404.sh script from the
CHIP-SDK repo. If you run into dependency issues early on, check out that script and what it attempts to do.
Create a Linux Image
We are creating our custom Linux images by first generating “root file systems” or
rootfs directories, which are literally the
/ directories which shall form the skeleton of our target operating systems.
We are using the program
multistrap to create our
multistraptakes in a config file, and outputs a
There are a few
multistrap config files inside
multistrap-config-examples/*.conf. More information about
multistrap can be found in the documentation.
CHIP-Pro-custom-linux/create-chip-rootfs.sh takes a
multistrap configuration file as its only argument.
sh create-chip-rootfs.sh multistrap-config-examples/debian-netutils.conf
This will auto-generate two different
rootfs- Only generated if it is missing, as it is time consuming. This will give us the kernel (
/boot) and modules (‘/lib/modules’) specific to the CHIP Pro.
rootfs- The custom
rootfscontaining whatever is specified in our
Then, it will stitch these elements together into a single master
rootfs.tar. If you want to get into the details on this process, read on. If you just want to put this software onto your CHIP, skip to Flashing.
CHIP-buildroot is a fork of
buildroot that will compile a root file system, or
rootfs, optimized for the CHIP Pro hardware. This includes kernel modifications such as a device tree overlay corresponding to the CHIP Pro board.
One can use the vanilla
buildrootas the totality of their target Linux image. But
buildrootis incredibly spartan.
buildrootdoes not include any kind of package manager and is better suited for assembling an OS where the software is fixed. It is not ideal for prototyping!
We just need to compile
CHIP-buildroot once to get a skeleton
rootfs, from which we are going to pick out only the
In my experience, GCC v6 will throw errors during the
buildroot compilation. The most direct solution I have found is to make sure you have the GCC v5 binary, and then temporarily symlink the default
gcc binary to point to
sudo apt-get install gcc-5 sudo mv /usr/bin/gcc /usr/bin/gcc.old sudo ln -s /usr/bin/gcc-5 /usr/bin/gcc # Make sure to undo these hacks when you are done, e.g.: #sudo rm /usr/bin/gcc #sudo mv /usr/bin/gcc.old /usr/bin/gcc
The actual compilation is simple. The
make chippro_defconfig is basically going to overwrite
CHIP-buildroot/.config with the
If you’re feeling adventurous, the
.configcan be optionally modified further by using something like
cd CHIP-SDK/CHIP-buildroot make chippro_defconfig make # This can take a while!!
buildroot process is complete we will have a final
rootfs.tar located in
CHIP-SDK/CHIP-buildroot/output/images/rootfs.tar. Since we only want the
/lib/modules, we are going to decompress this archive for later use:
mkdir /CHIP-buildroot/buildroot-rootfs tar -xf CHIP-SDK/CHIP-buildroot/output/images/rootfs.tar -C CHIP-SDK/CHIP-buildroot/buildroot-rootfs
Generate Custom rootfs
Now we are going to use
multistrap different tool to create another, separate,
multistrap allows us to create a more robust
rootfs, containing almost any package we want out-of-the-box.
To accomplish this we first fill out a configuration file which contains details about the architecture, Linux distribution, and packages and sources we want to go into our new
sudo apt-get install multistrap qemu-user-static live-build
Multistrap reads a config file that will determine the contents of our
rootfs. We can use this config file to specify our distribution flavor, packages, sources, architecture and more. The following is a simple example that will build a plain Debian system, with a handful of useful networking and sysadmin utilities added in, for a big-endian ARM (
# multistrap-config-examples/debian-netutils.conf # A slightly more complex example, comprising vanilla Debian # with a few common utilities for armhf. [General] arch=armhf cleanup=true noauth=true unpack=true debootstrap=Debian Net Utils aptsources=Debian [Debian] packages=apt kmod lsof source=http://cdn.debian.net/debian/ keyring=debian-archive-keyring suite=stable components=main contrib non-free [Net] #Basic packages to enable the networking packages=netbase net-tools ethtool udev iproute iputils-ping ifupdown isc-dhcp-client ssh network-manager source=http://cdn.debian.net/debian/ [Utils] #General purpose utilities packages=locales adduser nano less wget dialog git usbutils passwd sudo source=http://cdn.debian.net/debian/
Generate multistrap rootfs
This step will be much, much faster than the
CHIP-buildroot compilation was. With our config file in hand,
multistrap -f multistrap-config-examples/debian-netutils.conf -d ./rootfs/
rootfs data will be located in
Configure and Complete rootfs
Once we have our
rootfs data, however, it will require further configuration before it is bootable.
Copy over Buildroot Kernel and Modules
First, we want to get the
/boot (kernel) and
/lib/modules (modules) from the
cp -r CHIP-SDK/CHIP-buildroot/buildroot-rootfs/boot/* ./rootfs/boot cp -r CHIP-SDK/CHIP-buildroot/buildroot-rootfs/lib/modules ./rootfs/lib/
Fix Binary Permissions
sudo (if you included it in your
multistrap) and some other system binaries have incorrect permissions by this point, as we were assembling our
rootfs as a regular user on the host.
sudo chown root:root -R /bin /usr/bin /usr/sbin for FILE in /usr/bin/sudo /usr/lib/sudo/sudoers.so /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.d /etc/sudoers.d/README /var/lib/sudo do chown root:root $FILE chmod 4755 $FILE done
chroot into the target rootfs
Next, we are going to
rootfs to complete some of our package configuration and userspace setup.
# enables armhf emulation sudo cp /usr/bin/qemu-arm-static ./rootfs/usr/bin # chroot into rootfs sudo LC_ALL=C LANGUAGE=C LANG=C chroot ./rootfs sudo mount -t proc nodev /proc/
Now, we can execute commands almost as if we were booted into our target machine.
Setup DNS Resolution
If you intend to do networking with your CHIP, it’s a good idea to set this so that network apps can resolve domain names.
echo "nameserver 127.0.0.1" > /etc/resolv.conf
Suppress Excessive Log Output
You may find that the CHIP outputs some annoying logs (such as the RTW WiFi driver) to the interactive console. This can be avoided by suppressing DMESG output:
echo "#!/bin/sh -e # # rc.local # # This script is executed at the end of each multiuser runlevel. # Make sure that the script will "exit 0" on success or any other # value on error. # # In order to enable or disable this script just change the execution # bits. # # By default this script does nothing. dmesg -D exit 0" > /etc/rc.local
Complete Package Config
dpkg --configure -a
Note: Sometimes it’s best to do this one on the board itself, especially for packages that involve system devices: network, sound, etc. If this throws bugs for you, try running it later once you’re up and running on the CHIP Pro.
Create a New User
# Note: do this as root adduser hero_of_kvatch usermod -aG sudo hero_of_kvatch
Change Root Password
# Note: do this as root passwd
Compress the rootfs
Finally, we just need to compress the
rootfs contents into a .tar archive. Exit the
exit until you’re back to your host). Then:
cd ./rootfs tar -cf ../rootfs.tar . cd ..
Now we have a
rootfs.tar. We are ready to build and flash a NAND image.
Remove Emulator when Done
When you’re done poking around in the
chroot you can remove the ARM emulator binary. Remember, file space on the CHIP Pro is precious!
sudo rm ./rootfs/usr/bin/qemu-arm-static
Now that we have a final
rootfs.tar, we need to:
- Build: Combine
rootfs.tarwith a bootloader (
uboot) to create a final image
- Flash: Burn that final image to the CHIP Pro flash IC
CHIP-Pro-custom-linux/build-and-flash.sh will automate both of these steps. If you want more details on each of these steps, check out the following two subsections.
Building the NAND Image
CHIP-tools provides a script to perform this step directly,
chip-create-nand-images.sh. It requires three arguments:
- Path to CHIP Pro bootloader (
- Path to target
- Final image output directory (
CHIP_TOOLS_PATH="CHIP-Pro-custom-linux/CHIP-SDK/CHIP-tools" UBOOT_PATH="CHIP-Pro-custom-linux/CHIP-SDK/CHIP-buildroot/output/build/uboot-nextthing_2016.01_next" ROOTFS_PATH="CHIP-Pro-custom-linux/rootfs.tar" cd CHIP_TOOLS_PATH rm -rf new-image # delete any old image sudo ./chip-create-nand-images.sh $UBOOT_PATH $ROOTFS_PATH new-image
Flashing the NAND Image
This step is simpler, but requires manual user intevention on the hardware side to stay in FEL mode. Once we have a
new-image/ directory (see previous step), the software command is:
sudo chown -R $USER:$USER ./new-image # ensure usable data permissions ./chip-flash-nand-images.sh new-image/
Then, while holding down the FEL button on the CHIP Pro, connect it to the host PC’s micro-USB cable. After the first
FEL......OK message, continue holding the FEL button; this should happen twice. Once the flasher says it is “writing” to the UBI FS, you can then safely let go of the button.
If you let go of FEL too soon, the flash will most likely time out looking for the CHIP Pro.
What About Customizing Linux Kernel/Modules?
What if you need
CDC-ACM drivers enabled for the CHIP Pro, or other kernel modules?
CHIP-linux repository is cloned and compiled for you automatically as a step of the
CHIP-buildroot compilation. If we want to tweak what modules our CHIP Pro kernel will include, we need to override the default Linux config of
... BR2_LINUX_KERNEL=y BR2_LINUX_KERNEL_CUSTOM_GIT=y BR2_LINUX_KERNEL_CUSTOM_REPO_URL="https://github.com/NextThingCo/CHIP-linux" BR2_LINUX_KERNEL_CUSTOM_REPO_VERSION="nextthing/4.4/chip" BR2_LINUX_KERNEL_PATCH="wext_priv.patch" BR2_LINUX_KERNEL_USE_CUSTOM_CONFIG=y BR2_LINUX_KERNEL_CUSTOM_CONFIG_FILE="$(TOPDIR)/board/nextthing/chippro/linux.config" BR2_LINUX_KERNEL_ZIMAGE=y BR2_LINUX_KERNEL_DTS_SUPPORT=y BR2_LINUX_KERNEL_INTREE_DTS_NAME="ntc-gr8-crumb" BR2_LINUX_KERNEL_INSTALL_TARGET=y BR2_LINUX_KERNEL_TOOL_CPUPOWER=y BR2_LINUX_KERNEL_TOOL_PERF=y
BR2_LINUX_KERNEL_CUSTOM_REPO_VERSION, you can cause
CHIP-buildroot to use a custom
CHIP-linux fork. If you wish to compile code from a local source, simply replace
BR_LINUX_KERNEL_CUSTOM_LOCAL=y. (Again, refer to the makefile)
You can use
make menuconfiginside the
CHIP-linuxrepo to quickly view or edit the kernel modules graphically.
Most of what I have pieced together here is from what I have learned on the NextThingCo forums:
- Appropriately-named NTC forum user “Chipper” documents the many trials and tribulations along the path to enlightenment
- Bootstrapping a Distro for C.H.I.P. (Wiki)
- The Light at the end of The Tunnel
- Flashing Buildroot (Wiki)
- More Mutterings
As well as various blog posts, articles and SO answers: